Appeal Procedure under Companies Act 2013, Filing an Appeal, Companies Act 2013, NCLT, EbizFiling

Understanding the Appeal Procedure under the Companies Act, 2013: A Comprehensive Guide


The Companies Act, 2013 establishes a comprehensive framework for resolving disputes that arise between companies and the Registrar of Companies (ROC), who is appointed by the Minister. This law is designed to streamline corporate governance and alleviate the complications associated with arbitrary decisions and protracted processes. All companies are required to comply with this law and adhere to the prescribed procedures. This article provides an overview of the appeal procedure accessible to a company that feels aggrieved by an order issued by the ROC regarding its functions, activities, or operations, as outlined in the Companies Act, 2013.

Appellate Authorities and Their Jurisdiction

Under the Companies Act 2013, the National Company Law Tribunal (NCLT) and the National Company Law Appellate Tribunal (NCLAT) are the primary appellate authorities. The NCLT is the first level of appeal, while the NCLAT is the appellate authority for appeals against NCLT decisions. Both tribunals have jurisdiction over matters related to companies, including disputes between shareholders, directors, and creditors.

Grounds for Filing an Appeal

An appeal can be filed under the Companies Act 2013 if a person is aggrieved by the decision or order of the NCLT. The Act provides specific grounds on which an appeal can be made, such as:


a) Decisions related to the appointment or removal of directors
b) Disputes regarding the reduction or increase of share capital
c) Orders related to mergers, amalgamations, or acquisitions
d) Decisions regarding the winding up of companies
e) Matters related to oppression and mismanagement
f) Orders or decisions regarding class actions

Procedure for Filing an Appeal

To file an appeal under the Companies Act 2013, certain procedural requirements must be fulfilled. The process involves the following steps:


a) Drafting and filing the appeal: The appellant, along with their legal representative, drafts the appeal in the prescribed format. The appeal must contain the grounds, facts, and legal provisions on which it is based. The appellant then files the appeal with the appropriate appellate tribunal.


b) Paying the prescribed fees: The appellant is required to pay the requisite fees along with the appeal. The fee structure may vary based on the nature and value of the appeal.


c) Service of notice: After filing the appeal, the appellant must serve a notice to the respondents, informing them about the appeal and providing them with a copy of the appeal petition.


d) Submission of documents: The appellant must submit all relevant documents, including copies of the impugned order or decision, supporting evidence, and any other documents required by the tribunal.

Hearing and Decision of an Appeal

Once the appeal is filed and the necessary documents are submitted, the appellate tribunal schedules a hearing. During the hearing, both the appellant and the respondent present their arguments and provide evidence to support their respective positions. The tribunal carefully examines the merits of the case, considers applicable provisions of the Companies Act, and reviews relevant legal precedents.


Following the hearing, the tribunal issues its decision, either upholding or overturning the order of the NCLT. The decision of the appellate tribunal is binding on the parties involved unless challenged further in a higher court.


The appeal procedure under the Companies Act 2013 plays an important role in ensuring transparency, fairness, and justice in resolving disputes related to companies. It provides an avenue for aggrieved parties to challenge decisions or orders of the NCLT. The appeal process allows for a thorough review of the facts, legal provisions, and arguments presented by both parties. It ensures that decisions are made according to the provisions of the Companies Act 2013.

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